The history of fragrances
The term Per fumum is Latin origin and means “through smoke”. So the first perfumes created by the combustion of aromatic substances. It came with the gods in connection and fragrances used earlier for religious ceremonies. So resins and woods were in honor of the sun god Ra burned at three different times of the day, according to the course of the sun. Great emphasis was placed on the embalming of the dead, which should prevent the decay of the dead. For each mummy own perfume was created so you can find this in the other world the smell again in the case of mutilation of a body part. The first perfume recipes were found on the walls of the back rooms in temples. They were recorded in the bas-reliefs. The god Thoth had these formulas reveals his priests. These are the first formulas, which are recorded in the history of perfumery. As Bes was the goddess of cosmetics, was the god Thoth as the god of perfumes. The Egyptian women wore perfume cones on their heads, which were worn for perfuming. In the Ebers Papyrus and on the sacrificial pillar of the Museum of Leiden, fragrant herbs were enumerated, which found in the manufacture of perfumes use. There are many others, frankincense, myrrh, spikenard, saffron, jasmine, lily, rose, cinnamon, Opoponax, cedar, balsam wood, etc. One of the most famous Egyptian perfumes was Kyphi, which was used both as an oil and as incense. Plutarch mentioned 16 components for this fragrance. The most desirable ointments in ancient Egypt were Mendesium, Qamdi, Cyprinum and aegyptium.
Also the Israelites know the use of fragrances. Here, the perfume was only used sparingly and only for religious purposes. Moses had received from the Lord’s commandment to seek out certain fragrances for worship and he also received the formula of their composition. The longtime residence of the Jews in Egypt meant that fragrances and perfumes were imported from Egypt, first by King David. It now also the local aromatic plants were used and more from Mesopotamia and India. The first official perfumers of the Bible were Oliah and Besaleel.
Reached its climax in the use of perfumes and cosmetics in the Roman, Arabs and Greeks. Thus, the emperor Nero excessive use of the precious fragrances and let the walls of his bath and even his sandals perfume. The young emperor Heliogabalus had an entire pool filled with perfumed wine and bathed in it with his courtesans. The “ennobled wine” was allowed to drink the people. The art of perfumery Roman fell to the end of the empire.
In the Islamic world scents also had a special significance. Thus known Mohammed (6th century n. Chr.) To his fondness for perfumes. In addition to the pleasures on earth, Mohammed promised his faithful also fragrances after death. This is the work “The Garden of Eden” of the poet Firdausi. Musk was there the favorite perfume of the Islamic world and mixed in some mosques musk in the mortar (mosque Iparia, Zobeida etc.). Avicenna was the most important Arab physician. To him we are indebted for important medical books and books on medicine. All Arabs and Muslims considered the perfume as a gift of the Prophet, which is to give pleasure and creates health and well-being.
Through the Crusades, the Europeans came through in the 12th century with Islam in contact, even the perfumes played an important role again. By Catherine de Medici (1519-1589) and from Italy, recognized the perfume art also France. The ordered her to Paris perfumers could hardly satisfy the large amounts of perfume at the court of Henry the third (1551-1589). Obtained the fragrant substances in Grasse, southern France, a small town, where they found herb and lavender growing wild. But thanks to the favorable climate, and imports from India, Persia and Iberian Peninsula felt comfortable. With Louis 13th and 14th, the Sun King, the alleged perfumes finally settled in France. Louis the 15th (1710 -1774) continued the practice of his father’s farm and continued his favorites, Madame Pompadour and Du Barry gave a fortune on perfumes from. Even England was overrun in the time of Queen Elizabeth 1 (1533-1603) of scents. In Cologne, the Milanese Giovanni Maria Farina began around 1709 with the production of “burnt water” (eau de cologne).
Beginning of the 19th century was for the first time combines floral fragrance with synthetic fragrances. Today, not least for reasons of cost, and economy in the perfume industry uses only synthetic substances, unfortunately at the expense of our own health. This means that even the scent secrets pre-Christian civilizations, natural origin, has been lost. We want to revive this heritage of our natural perfume again and the precious treasure nurture from nature. Perfume should back health and healing are associated with the concepts, because in our modern and hectic age nothing is more important than to recognize the value of nature again, appreciate and use it for themselves in gratitude for the body, mind and soul to reconcile.
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